Heat breaks the sucrose into the simple sugars glucose and fructose, giving each cookie a shiny, light brown crust. Three of five thought the water biscuits were fluffier and better overall. If my wife and I ever have identical twins, I'd like to name one Stanley and the other Evil Stanley, for the purposes of scientific inquiry. Six of eight people could not tell a difference. I like to use a knife and cut squares, so I don't have left-over pieces to re-knead and re-roll. Two of eight people thought the shortening biscuits tasted better than the butter biscuits. It was slightly sticky, so you could save some mess by going with a 3:8 liquid:flour ratio. As you can see in the pictures, the dough that was kneaded only 5x didn't rise quite as much as the other biscuits. I'll put it on the list. It also opens up space to keep the cookie from becoming too dense. Butter or shortening? In my quest to find the perfect sugar cookie for decorating, I have learned a lot about how individual cookie ingredients behave in a recipe. Other major ingredients are fat or shortening, and sugar. I agree: an experiment to verify this would be great. Would taste-testers be able to tell the difference? The process of creaming is, simply put, just mixing butter and sugar together. Bake at a higher temperature... not because it makes a big difference in the final biscuit, but because you get to eat your biscuits sooner. This surprised me. Cookies were rich in magnesium (576.54–735.06 mg/100 g) with favorable Na/K ratio (<1.0). The Science of Bakery Products is an interesting and easy to read book, aimed at anyone with an interest in everyday chemistry. It’s actually more of a science… chemistry really. Two of eight people thought the milk biscuits were maybe a little "saltier", but couldn't decide which they liked better. Well, that depends on your taste. But first a little about technique: how do you make biscuits in the first place? You can use baking soda if you add an acid like cream of tartar, vinegar or even a splash of citrus or citrus rind. Many biscuit recipes caution against over-working the dough. Share it with us! 18 days ago. In previous cookie science experiments, I examined how the wheat protein gluten (something that my friend couldn’t eat) affected how cookies look and taste. My favorite was the middle batch, with 1.5 teaspoons of baking powder, but my wife thought this one was a little too dense. Biscuits, cookies, and crackers have a cereal base of at least 60%. Werner’s theory. This was a tough one. One of four voted for the buttermilk biscuit (because of "better taste"), One of four voted for the milk biscuit (because, "the other one has better taste, but this one has better texture"). Reply You can see this well in the picture of the final biscuits as well: Surprisingly, all of the biscuits were extremely good. Every time, the results were a wash... butter and shortening seem to be very difficult to distinguish in biscuits. I did not tell my guests what the difference in the batches was until everyone had told me their opinion. Chemistry and Food Sources, How to Substitute for Baking Powder and Baking Soda, 10 Examples of Mixtures (Heterogeneous and Homogeneous). I made a single batch of six biscuits. Some biscuits, like drop biscuits, call for a lot of liquid, so the dough is super sticky and you have to "drop" lumps of it onto the pan. When you take the cookies out of the oven, the hot water gases in the cookie contract. If you ever do a "revision 2" of this experiment, it would be good to test baking soda vs baking powder as well. Caramelisation is a non-enzymatic browning reaction, which is caused by the breakdown of sugars at high temperatures. 4 months ago. Cream cheese is a decent (but inferior) alternative if you're worried about fat content (cream cheese has about half as many calories from fat as butter or shortening). Almost everyone, if you ask them, will tell you that buttermilk makes better biscuits. No, biscuits and gravy aren’t rocket science, but there are some interesting phenomena going on that will make you a better chef if you understand them. :-), Answer I'm a camper & frequently make biscuits in a Dutch oven; your experiments will help create a recipe that is much more "portable" than my usual recipe! I went into this thinking that the amount of liquid ratio was probably the most important variable in the whole recipe. And congrats to Solobo for the perfect experiment. Chemistry Class 12 Chapter 9 - Coordination Compounds. These are the questions that plague biscuit makers everywhere, and they are the questions that I have set out, over the past 13 months, to answer once and for all. Is it better to bake for a short time at a high temperature, or for a long time at a low temperature? BTW, I put my cut/out biscuits in my Lodge cast iron skillet in lieu of a baking sheet to bake them. Significant misalignment caused by separation during baking may result in damage to some crackers by these discs. 1 year ago It turns out that it's not. 2 years ago. What Is Cream of Tartar or Potassium Bitartrate? 18 days ago. I’ll experiment a bit more! Biscuits were significantly (p < .05) different in their nutrient composition, with the crude protein, crude fiber, ash contents, and dietary fiber content increasing as the PPF level increased. I've tried to be as scientific as possible by: In this instructable, I will show the results of these experiments and my results for the "ultimate" biscuit recipe. Or maybe you just want the richest, crumbliest taste and texture possible. What’s the reaction? 1 cup of liquid (milk, buttermilk, or water), 1/2 cup of fat (butter, stick margarine, or shortening), working the dough even less (COMPLETE: see, cutting the butter in vs. melting it and pouring it in, sour cream (apparently it's also a thing). Another big variable in biscuit recipes is the amount of fat (butter, shortening, etc.) Usually its in the ballpark of 1/3 or 1/2 cup per 2 cups of flour, which is about half the amount of fat per flour that you put into a pie crust. It kind of rose and collapsed. What is the true key to flakiness? So, you definitely get flatter biscuits when you add more butter (incidentally, the same is true with cookies... if your cookies are running all over the pan when they bake, just reduce the amount of butter/shortening and they'll hold their shape much better). Four of eight people could tell no difference in taste between the shortening and butter biscuits. Answer I've got a can of powdered buttermilk and am looking at trying that in a biscuit recipe. I'm trying to get a biscuit whose center is soft, fluffy and for want of an exact description, spongy.....no crumbs!! Yes, you can certainly add a little flour to make the dough easier to handle. The pan has two representative biscuits from each batch. Buttermilk isn't blow-everyone-away better, but it might be a little better. Something is happening with the gluten in there, I'm sure. Did you make this project? If you can, cut round biscuits and then put them in a cast iron skillet touching edges and then in the oven. Still others swear by cream cheese. Note: Metric conversions (thanks to ZaKKoS for writing these up): First Prize in the Explore Science Contest, Participated in the Apocalypse Preparedness Contest. But if you want to save a few bucks and a few calories, margarine is a great alternative that may even make the biscuits taste better. So if buttermilk isn't really better than milk, that begs a question: could you just use water instead of milk? To find out, I made three batches of biscuits that were identical except for the amount of fat used (in this case, butter). There isn’t enough butter to make a … I then took a time-lapse video of the biscuits as they baked. What about the dissenter, who liked the butter biscuits better? But what difference does the fat make? In our Revision Notes of Chemistry Class 12 of Chapter 9, students will read in detail about: Additional compounds. This helps the ingredients mix into the recipe more evenly and means your cookie dough will be. I've varied the shotlrtening from 1 tblspn per cup of flour to 3 tblspns per cup and I've varied baking powder from 1 tspn per cup to 3 tspns per cup, and I have tried varying buttermilk from barely enough to form a batter to so much I could barely get the batter to be able to knead it. Super-Flaky Buttermilk Biscuits. 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